Multiple sclerosis is an illness which affects the central nervous system. The problem starts in the immune system. In a healthy person, the immune system is there to do a good job of keeping the germs such as viruses from getting in and attacking the body. It builds up defences and stops our bodies from becoming invaded by things which may cause us damage.
In a person who has MS, the immune system mistakes a part of the body for an invading pathogen and attacks it. Myelin, the layer that protects and insulates the nerves, is what the immune system attacks in a person who has MS.
As the immune system continually attacks the myelin, it causes damaging lesions and scars to the myelin and also to the nerves themselves which means that the nerves then struggle to transmit to one another. Messages between nerves can become slower or stopped completely.
Because of this, there are a lot of symptoms that people who first have MS may experience, depending on where the myelin is most badly damaged. It can cause a numb or tingling feeling, as well as bladder and bowel problems, vision problems and extreme fatigue.
Although there is currently no cure for MS, a lot is being done to find one, as well as ways to treat the illness, and improve quality of life and relieve symptoms. Things such as paid clinical trials like these https://www.trials4us.co.uk/ and research done by scientists into the illness allows us to find out more about the illness and ultimately how to treat it.